Even though about three of the four bivariate correlations try statistically significant, this new advice of all relationship can be found in the newest questioned advice

Even though about three of the four bivariate correlations try statistically significant, this new advice of all relationship can be found in the newest questioned advice

First Studies

We start our analysis with descriptive analyses and some tentative tests of Hypothesis 1, which predicted that gender equality would be positively correlated with gender differences in value priorities. First, we replicated the cross-sectional association between gender equality and gender differences in personality by correlating GEI with the values. For the individual values, the correlation coefficients (Pearson’s r) are .30 for Achievement (p = .096), .62 for Benevolence (p < .001), .47 for Power (p = .007), .47 for Universalism (p = .007), and .15 for Stimulation (p = .480). To obtain a broader measure of personality differences, we also calculated an index that captures the average gender difference across all five values. The correlation between this index and GEI was .55 (p < .001). Together these findings mimic previous cross-sectional studies. For example, Falk and Hermle (2018) report a correlation of .56 between gender equality and a summary index of gender differences in preferences. Our tentative analysis renders initial partial support for Hypothesis 1.

Looking at Hypothesis dos, and this hypothesized you to definitely gender differences in all of the five well worth concerns do gather over time all over countries, Fig. step 1 reveals the typical cross-nation difference between opinions ranging from anyone between to help you having brand new 17 readily available nations. We mediocre the differences going back a couple rounds and you will deduct the common in the first two series of ESS to reduce year-to-12 months movement. Negative ratings mean an overlap for the values between men and positive opinions indicate good divergence. The development is fairly uniform across nations throughout the inclination towards significantly more convergence on all the four viewpoints. Switzerland try deviating regarding trend because the all of the philosophy hint in the a little desire towards divergence. There are even deviations about overlap pattern towards some philosophy in different regions whilst fundamental trend leans towards the overlap.

Average improvement in gender variations in philosophy from to to own 17 Europe. The amount graphed denotes the change for the absolute sex difference in and you may . Negative amounts mean that the real difference when you look at the viewpoints were coming down (converging) to own a certain worthy of from inside the a particular country while confident wide variety imply a boost in sex distinction (divergence)

A rough technique for illustrating which pattern is by pooling all the samples (countries) and you may contrasting the new standardized improvement (Cohen’s d) between folks in the 1st a couple of surf out-of ESS (2002–2004) to your last several https://datingranking.net/cs/guyspy-recenze/ swells of ESS (2014–2016). Dining table 2 implies that Cohen’s d decrease for everyone opinions that have the typical decrease in 15%. It easy description of your info is in accordance with Hypothesis dos, and that states that men’s and women’s worth goals converge throughout the years.

Longitudinal Activities

Turning to the longitudinal models, we first ran repeated measurement models with only time (see Table 3). Negative time coefficients mean that the difference between men and women is decreasing over time (i.e., converging) because the coefficients correspond to the average change in value differences between men and women across time points. Looking at specific values, Benevolence, Power, and Achievement are converging over time, whereas Universalism and Stimulation display no significant change over time. The effects are not substantial but they clearly refute the idea of a divergence in these values because men and women are becoming more alike over time. Hypothesis 2, predicting a gender convergence in values, is thus partly confirmed. Moreover, there is significant variation in intercept across countries (b = .15–.23, p < .001), but little or no variation in slope (Power: p = .040, all other ps > .22. In other words, the rate of change in value differences does not vary across countries. There is generally no covariance between intercept and slope, which indicates that the change in gender differences in values is not related to the size of the gender difference.